Thunderbird Portable 18.104.22.168 works great for me. I downloaded and installed Thunderbird Portable 22.214.171.124 on my local hard drive.
When I double click ThunderbirdPortable.exe nothing happens. If I watch the task manager, I see ThunderbirdPortable for about a second and then it quits. The splash screen never appears and there are no errors.
I tried renaming renaming Thunderbird.exe and added a .ini file pointing to it, but got the same result. I know the .ini file is working because if I give a bad name for the exe I get an error.
I have this same behavior with Firefox Portable 2.0 but FileZilla Portable 2.2.30a works fine.